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William Shockley威廉萧克利晶体管发明人

William Shockley威廉萧克利晶体管发明人

William Shockley威廉萧克利晶体管发明人

The transistor was born just before Christmas 1947 when John Bardeen and Walter Brattain, two scientists working for William Shockley at Bell Telephone Laboratories in Murray Hill, N.J., observed that when electrical signals were applied to contacts on a crystal of germanium, the output power was larger than the input. Shockley was not present at that first observation. And though he fathered the discovery in the same way Einstein fathered the atom bomb, by advancing the idea and pointing the way, he felt left out of the momentous occasion.

晶体管诞生于1947年的圣诞节前夕。当时在美国纽泽西州玛瑞山的贝尔实验室(Bell Telephone Laboratories),有两名替威廉?萧克利(William Shockley)工作的科学家-约翰?巴丁(John Bardeen)以及瓦特?布拉顿(Walter Brattain)。当他们观测到电子讯号施加于掺杂了它种材料所构成的锗金属晶体,具有输出电流大于输入电流的性质时,萧克利却没有出席于这样子的第一现场。如同爱因斯坦(Einstein)发明原子弹一般,萧克利运用相同的原理发明了晶体管。尽管他改良了最初的构想、并在日后强调其发展的可行性。对于错过了这样重大的场合,他仍深感遗憾。

Shockley, a very competitive and sometimes infuriating man, was determined to make his imprint on the discovery. He searched for an explanation of the effect from what was then known of the quantum physics of semiconductors. In a remarkable series of insights made over a few short weeks, he greatly extended the understanding of semiconductor materials and developed the underlying theory of another, much more robust amplifying device ─ a kind of sandwich made of a crystal with varying impurities added, which came to be known as the junction transistor. By 1951 Shockley's co-workers made his semiconductor sandwich and demonstrated that it behaved much as his theory had predicted.

萧克利,一个竞争心非常强而有时容易动怒的人,已下定决心要在史上留名。致力于寻找能够解释日后在量子物理学中被称为半导体的材料,其所具有的特殊效应的科学解释。在短短几个礼拜经过一连串非常卓越的判断后,他大大地扩大了当时对于半导体材料的了解,并且从中发展了一套基本的理论,而这套理论能够用来设计另一种更为坚固耐用的增频组件-一种具有如同三明治般夹在一起的一种经由变更不同的添加物所形成的晶体,亦即目前广为人所知的接面晶体管。依据1951年萧克利的同事们所制造出来的夹层半导体组件,印证了先前他的理论所预测的半导体材料性质。

For the next couple of decades advances in transistor technology drove the industry, as several companies jumped on the idea and set out to develop commercially viable versions of the device. New ways to create Shockley's sandwich were invented, and transistors in a vast variety of sizes and shapes flooded the market. Shockley's invention had created a new industry, one that underlies all of modern electronics, from supercomputers to talking greeting cards. Today the world produces about as many transistors as it does printed characters in all the newspapers, books, magazines and computer and electronic-copier pages combined.

因为这后来的二、三十年来在晶体管技术上的发展,迫使整个工业系统,如同许多企业投入这套构想并且开始发展该组件应用在商业上的可行性。许多制造萧克利夹层晶体管的新方法渐渐地被开发出来了,并且在不久之后这些数量庞大、具有不同尺寸以及外型的晶体管充斥了整个市场。萧克利的发明创造了一个新的工业,而这个工业构成了近代所有电子产业的基础,从超级计算机到有声电子贺卡都在这样的范围内。直到今天,世界上所生产出来的晶体管数量和现今集合了所有在报纸、书本、杂志、计算机、以及复印机上所印刷出来的字数一样地多。

William Bradford Shockley was born in London, where his father, a mining engineer, and mother, a mineral surveyor, were on a business assignment. Home-schooled in Palo Alto, Calif., before attending Palo Alto Military Academy and Hollywood High School, he found his interest in physics sparked by a neighbor who taught the subject at Stanford University. Shockley earned a bachelor's degree from Caltech, and a Ph.D. at M.I.T. for a dissertation titled "Calculations of Wave Functions for Electrons in Sodium Chloride Crystals."

威廉?布莱德福?萧克利(William Bradford Shockley)出生于伦敦,他的父亲是采矿技师,母亲则为采矿勘测员。早年在加州帕罗奥多市的家中接受完基础教育。并于进入帕罗奥多军事学院暨Hollywood高级中学就读前,经由一名任教于史丹佛大学的邻居启发他在物理学上的兴趣。其后,萧克利在加州理工大学获得大学文凭,同时并于加州麻省理工学院取得他的博士学位,其博士论文的题目为“氯化钠晶体电子波函数的运算”。

At Bell Labs, Shockley recognized early on that the solution to one of the technological nightmares of the day--the cost and unreliability of the vacuum tubes used as valves to control the flow of electrons in radios and telephone-relay systems ─ lay in solid-state physics. Vacuum tubes were hot, bulky, fragile and short-lived. Crystals, particularly crystals that can conduct a bit of electricity, could do the job faster, more reliably and with 1 million times less power ─ if only someone could get them to function as electronic valves. Shockley and his team figured out how to accomplish this trick.

在贝尔实验室,萧克利很早就体认到名为当代科技梦餍之一的问题─在收音机以及电话相关的系统中,如同控制阀门般控制电子流动、价格昂贵却又不可仰赖的真空管─其解决方法必定栖息于固态物理学之中。真空管温度高、体积庞大、脆弱且寿命短暂。而晶体材料,特别是具有部分传导电流能力的晶体,不仅速度快,稳定性更高且能够省下一百万倍的电功率─若是有人想运用这种晶体材料来制作电子控制阀门。萧克利以及他的工作团队已掌握其制作技术的窍门。

Understanding of the significance of the invention of what came to be called the transistor (for transfer resistance) spread quite rapidly. In 1956 Shockley, Bardeen and Brattain shared a Nobel Prize in Physics ─ an unusual awarding of the Nobel for the invention of a useful article.

由于了解到这个后来被人称为晶体管(转移电阻)而广为人所知的发明的重要性。在1956年,萧克利、巴丁以及布拉顿共同获得了诺贝尔物理学奖-诺贝尔协会对于发明应用如此广泛的组件授予其至高无上的荣耀。

Not content with his lot at Bell Labs, Shockley set out to capitalize on his invention. In doing so, he played a key role in the industrial development of the region at the base of the San Francisco Peninsula. It was Shockley who brought the silicon to Silicon Valley.

因为不满意他在贝尔实验室的产量,萧克利出售了他的发明。也因为这样,对于旧金山半岛区域的工业发展,他扮演着非常重要的关键角色。将硅元素带进硅谷的就是萧克利。

In February 1956, with financing from Beckman Instruments Inc., he founded Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory with the goal of developing and producing a silicon transistor. He chose to establish this start-up near Palo Alto, where he had grown up and where his mother still lived. He set up operations in a storefront ─ little more than a Quonset hut ─ and hired a group of young scientists (I was one of them) to develop the necessary technology. By the spring of 1956 he had a small staff in place and was beginning to undertake research and development.

在1956年的二月,靠着贝克门仪器公司的资金支持,他创立了以研发和生产硅晶体管为目标的萧克利(Shockley)半导体研究室。研究室的地点被选择设立在靠近帕罗奥多(Palo Alto)的地方-他在此地长大,母亲仍然居住在这里。他将设备建立于一个稍大于瓦楞铁顶半桶形房屋的店面,并且聘用了一群年轻的科学家来开发这个重要的技术(我就是其中一位)。在1956年的春天之前,他已经拥有一小群职员并且开始着手进行研发。

Until this time, nearly all transistors had utilized germanium because it was easier to prepare in pure form. Silicon offered advantages, at least in theory, mainly because devices made from it could operate at higher temperatures. Also, silicon is a very common chemical element, whereas germanium is relatively rare. Silicon, however, melts at a much higher temperature, making its purification and processing more difficult.

到目前为止,由于较容易取得纯净的锗(germanium)元素,几乎所有的晶体管皆是利用锗来制成的。理论上,以硅(silicon)制成的晶体管提供了许多优点,至少它能在温度较高的环境下运作。除此之外,相对于含量稀少的锗元素,硅是相当普遍的化学元素。然而,硅的高熔点使得它的纯化与处理过程较为困难。

Shockley's group set to work to learn about the materials and processes that would be required. Only a couple of the scientists had any previous experience with semiconductors, so it was an intense learning time for most of us.

萧克利的团队开始着手研究硅这个材料以及相关的处理程序,只有少数的科学家先前有过半导体的相关经验,所以对我们绝大多数的工作伙伴而言,这正是个迫切需要学习新知识的时刻。

Working for Shockley proved to be a particular challenge. He extended his competitive nature even to his working relationships with the young physicists he supervised. Beyond that, he developed traits that we came to view as paranoid. He suspected that members of his staff were purposely trying to undermine the project and prohibited them from access to some of the work. He viewed several trivial events as malicious and assigned blame. He felt it necessary to check new results with his previous colleagues at Bell Labs, and he generally made it difficult for us to work together.

为萧克利工作不是一般的挑战。即使是在与他指导的年轻物理学家建立工作关系上,他显露出好竞争的个性。除此之外,他展现了我们视为偏执狂的特征。他怀疑部份的职员蓄意地以阴险的手段去试着破坏计划,并且禁止他们接触若干作业。他把一些无价值的结果视为恶意并且给予指责。他觉得与他先前在贝尔实验室的同事一起检验新的研究结果是有必要的,这些举止通常使我们难以与他一起共事。

In what was probably the final straw, he decided the entire laboratory staff should undergo polygraph tests to determine who was responsible for a minor injury experienced by one of the office workers. While the group was making real progress in developing the technology needed to produce silicon transistors, Shockley's management style proved an increasing burden.

或许是工作关系彻底决裂的导火线,他决定所有的实验室职员应该要接受测谎,以便找出该对一个不严重的损害负责任的人,这是其中一位工作人员的亲身经历。当团队用以制造硅晶体管的研发技术有实际进展的同时,萧克利的管理方式显然成为一种日益增加的负担。

The group was in danger of breaking up. In fact, a few of the first recruits had already abandoned the lab for other jobs. To try to stabilize the organization, several of us went over Shockley's head, directly to Arnold Beckman, who had financed the start-up, suggesting that Shockley be removed from direct management of the lab and function only as a technical consultant.

这个团队处于解散的危机之中。事实上,一些最早招募的成员早已纷纷离开实验室而投入其它工作。为了试着稳固这个团体,我们之中有些人直接向实验室创立时的出资者阿诺贝克门(Arnold Beckman)求助,并建议他将萧克利直接经营管理实验室的职务撤去,只让他担任技术顾问。

We grossly overestimated our power. Shockley survived our insurrection, and when it failed, we felt we had to look elsewhere for jobs. In the process of searching, we became convinced that our best course was to set up our own company to complete Shockley's original goal ─ which he had abandoned by this time in favor of another semiconductor device he had also invented ─ to make a commercial silicon transistor.

我们过于高估我们的力量了。萧克利在这场抗争中存活了下来。当这次事件失败时,我们觉得我们必须另谋高就。在找寻工作的过程中,我们开始变得相信最好的做法就是开创属于我们自己的公司来完成萧克利原本的目标-这是萧克利为了支持他另一个研发的半导体装置并做出商品化的硅晶体管而已经放弃的计划。

This new company, financed by Fairchild Camera & Instrument Corp., became the mother organization for several dozen new companies in Silicon Valley. Nearly all the scores of companies that are or have been active in semiconductor technology can trace the technical lineage of their founders back through Fairchild to the Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory. Unintentionally, Shockley contributed to one of the most spectacular and successful industry expansions in history.

这家新公司是由Fairchild Camera 以及 Instrument Corp提供资金创办的,它成为硅谷数十家新公司的始祖。几乎所有活跃于半导体科技产业的公司,都可以追溯他们的开创者的晶体管技术是源自于快捷(Fairchild)和萧克利(Shockley)半导体实验室。不知不觉地,萧克利成就了一个历史上最为壮观而且成功的工业发展。


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  • amethyst001   金币  +5   感谢您一直支持 ^;^   07-12-17 12:57


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